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Essays On Postpartum Depression

Postpartum Depression Essay

Postpartum Depression
Works Cited Not Included

What is Postpartum Depression

Having a baby should be one of the happiest and most important events in a woman?s life. However, although life with a new baby can be both thrilling and rewarding, it can also be a difficult and quite stressful task. Most women make the transition without great difficulty, yet some women experience considerable complexity that may manifest itself as a postpartum psychiatric disorder (O?hara, Hoffman, Philips, & Wright, 1992). Many physical and emotional changes can occur to a woman during the time of her pregnancy as well as following the birth of her child. These particular changes can leave a new mother feeling sad, anxious, afraid and confused. For many women, these feelings; which are known as baby blues, go away fairly quickly. But when they do not go away or rather they get worse, a woman may be experiencing the effects of postpartum depression (PPD). This is a serious condition that describes a range of physical and emotional changes and that requires prompt treatment from a health care provider. According to Mauthner, (1999) postpartum depression occurs when women are unable to experience, express and validate their feelings and needs within supportive, accepting and non-judgmental interpersonal relationships and cultural contexts.

Postpartum psychiatric illness was initially characterized as a group of disorders specifically linked to pregnancy and childbirth and thus was considered diagnostically distinct from other types of psychiatric illness. It has long been thought that the postpartum period is a time of increased risk for the onset of psychiatric disorders and adjustment difficulties in women (Campbell & Cohn, 1991). The link between reproductive status and depressive illness is further evidenced by the high frequency of depression during the premenstrual phase, and the immediate postpartum period (Yonkers, 1995). As one of the major physical, psychological, and social stresses of a woman's life, childbirth is gaining an increasing amount of recognition as a major risk factor in the growth of mental sickness. Postpartum depression is defined as a mild to moderate mood disturbance occurring between birth and six months post birth, rather than the less frequent, more severe postpartum psychosis, or the more prevalent but transient blues (Crokenberg & Leerkes, 2003). It is clear that the postpartum period is unique in the development of mental illness. As stated by O?hara & Zekoski (1988), approximately 10% to 30% of mothers report clinical levels of depression during the postpartum period.

The ?Baby Blues?

Although the current literature divides the spectrum of postpartum mood disorders into three distinct categories, these classifications frequently blend at the margins. At the mildest end of the spectrum is the "maternity blues" or "baby blues." Because this condition arises after 40% to 85% of deliveries, practitioners and...

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Postpartum Depression and Analysis of Treatments and Health Determinants

909 words - 4 pages The objective of this paper is to develop a thorough understanding of treatments available for mothers with postpartum depression and formulate a research question that can provide for future direction. Postpartum depression is universally recognized as a serious condition affecting 10-15% of women within a year of birth (O’Hara & Swain, 1992). The high prevalence of postpartum depression among mothers makes this an issue worth...

The Relationship Between Sleep Quality and Mothers With Postpartum Depression Compared To Mothers Without PPD

1985 words - 8 pages The study by Posmontier (2008) examines the relationship between sleep quality and mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) compared to mothers who do not have PPD. This research paper will review and critique various sections of the study. Study Question Postmontier (2008) clearly states two research questions along with what the researcher is looking to obtain from the data received. The first research question compares sleep quality...

Postpartum depression and child development: An investigation of mothers and fathers as sources of risk and resilience

994 words - 4 pages Written for my "Child Development" class this paper is a journal review of an article dealing with postpartum depression of mother's and father's being a influence on child temperment. The "article" is fully cited in case one want to read it themselves. Enjoy...

Postpartum Psychosis

1452 words - 6 pages You carry it with you for nine months. After those nine months, what you produced is a beautiful baby. Though you are happy with the thought of spending the next eighteen years watching this tiny person grow, you can’t help but feel like something is missing. There are many different types of depression in the world. The feeling of emptiness as described above could contribute to the diagnosis of postpartum depression. After having depression...

Andrea Yates - Innocent due to Mental Defect or Got Away with Murder?

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Chinese Taboo: Postpartum Recovery

2087 words - 8 pages Chinese Taboo: Postpartum Recovery In Asian countries and some parts of Europe, people still practice postpartum recovery, based on the ground that post pregnancy recovery would help new mothers recover from exhausted state and promote breast milk. According to Yin and Yang theory in Chinese medicine, a month’s of rest and strictly nutritious diets is beneficial for new mothers to keep their Yin and Yang balance. In this paper, I am going to...

Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Feminism

1755 words - 7 pages The adversity women endured in a patriarchal society during the nineteenth century gave birth to female feminism. Charlotte Perkins Gilman was one of the leading feminist during that time. Gilman strived for the oppressed women during the “Victorian Age”, she dedicated her life to social reform believing ever women should have equality. She opened the door for every day women to become involved and to be the masters of their own destiny. The...

Common Types of Depression

1664 words - 7 pages Types of Depression, there’s so many of them everyone is different so everyone has their different depression type. Here are some common types that are more known or in your case you probably never heard of. Major Depression or also known as Chronic Depression. Major Depression is lost in interest, lost in energy and this mood could last for a day or more. Systems of this could be feeling guilty, worthless, hypersonic (extensive sleep),...

Safety of Homebirth

1639 words - 7 pages Is homebirth safe for low risk mothers and babies? This question has been the focus of numerous studies since the late 1960’s when the majority of women began birthing in hospitals. Prior to middle of the 20th century most women gave birth at home under the care of a midwife. As the specialty of obstetrics grew the number of women choosing to give birth in the hospital increased. In 1940 56% of births happened in the hospital, by 1969 that...

My depression

1311 words - 5 pages Everyone has experienced feelings of sadness, and unhappiness in their lives however when these feelings of sadness, guilt, and disappointment don't seem to go away and intervene with a persons daily life then it becomes a problem. Depression is a common and serious medical condition that affects people from all walks of live regardless of gender, age, or ethnic background.  It affects the persons thoughts, feelings and body, however some forms...

Descent into Postpartum Psychosis; This is a nine page research essay on the short story "The Yellow Wallpaper" We had to do an analysis on the story and use third person.

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Postpartum Depression (PPD)

1.0 Overview

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a condition mostly associated with women as opposed to men. In most cases, among those who are infected with this dejection, it has been established that PPD becomes evident within the first four weeks after childbirth and in some instances after a miscarriage. This paper will focus on three main objectives, which are to determine (1) the causes of PPD, (2) the most explicit symptoms of the condition, and (3) the treatment or remedial actions that could be taken to avert or alleviate PPD. Below is a detailed synthesis of each objective.

2.0 Causes of PPD

According to an investigation by Mayo Clinic, the PPD condition is not ascribed to any particular cause. There are, however, beliefs that the despondency could result from physiological changes, emotional factors and lifestyle influences underpinning around a woman after giving birth or a miscarriage. Physiological changes pertain to the rapid drop in the levels of estrogen and progesterone in a woman’s body after childbirth, thus causing effects such as bodily weakness and drainage. The new sense of being a mother and the worries of how to take care of the child constitute the emotional factors. Finally, financial problems attributed to matrimony and a demanding baby is a part of the lifestyle changes that could cause the devastation of PPD.

3.0 Symptoms

There are several characteristics, mostly mood swings, which could serve as potential indicators of the presence of the PPD condition in a woman. Nonetheless, the presence of fewer than three of these symptoms is not enough support to warrant leaping into the conclusion that a person is suffering from this kind of dejection. Only a combination of more than three symptoms, usually after childbirth, could be a true manifestation of PPD in a person. Below are some of the major symptoms of PPD, but the list is not exhaustive:

  • Emotional drainage and exhaustion,
  • Recurrent thoughts to commit suicide,
  • A feeling of worthlessness,
  • Consistent insomnia and sleep deprivation,
  • Hatred towards the baby, and
  • Lack of food appetite.

4.0 Treatment for PPD

Postpartum depression is not a permanent condition and can even dissipate without any remedial measures taken. This own dissipation can take years and hence there is a need to curb this condition for those who cannot withstand the long waiting. The followings are some of the recommended healing practices in restoring normalcy.

  • Counseling. The patient should visit a psychiatrist for counseling and advice on how to manage the condition. This could be very effective in correcting the feeling of worthlessness and hatred towards the baby.
  • Hormone therapy. This approach could prove effective where the cause of the depression is established to be a rapid drop in the level of estrogen in the body, where the hormone could be replaced, thus averting the condition. However, it is important to note that the success of this method is limited and may not guarantee absolute success.
  • Antidepressants. The use of antidepressants requires carefulness because, though it is a proven treatment, breastfeeding mothers can pass the drug to the child. Moreover, antidepressants should only be taken after visiting a physician. This helps to avoid a self-prescription that is not in tandem with the level of depression suffered.

5.0 Conclusion

Postpartum is a manageable condition that could be easily averted if a corrective action is taken immediately. The right action involves visiting a health professional and avoiding the habits of self-diagnosing and prescribing.

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